The Replicator project aims to facilitate the development of numerous autonomous weapons for the Department of Defense (DoD) within a short span of two years.

Title: Pentagon Unveils Replicator Program to Counter China’s Military Advancements


In a bid to counter China’s rapid military progress, the Pentagon has introduced a new strategy called Replicator. This program aims to deploy thousands of attritable autonomous platforms that are small, smart, cheap, and numerous. By harnessing U.S. innovation and leveraging AI algorithms, the U.S. hopes to address the mass of China’s armed forces while placing a focus on unmanned systems. The Replicator program was announced by Deputy Defense Secretary Kathleen Hicks at the National Defense Industrial Association’s Emerging Technologies conference in Washington.

Challenges Posed by China and Historical Precedent

Deputy Secretary of Defense Kathleen Hicks highlighted China’s biggest advantage—mass. China’s military strength lies in its abundance of ships, missiles, and personnel. Hicks also noted the challenge posed by China’s rapidly diversifying anti-access/area-denial capabilities. However, she emphasized that historical war-winning strategies employed by the United States did not rely solely on matching the adversary’s resources. Hicks made a subtle reference to Russia’s all-out invasion of Ukraine, emphasizing the difference in how the U.S. values its personnel. Instead, the Replicator program aims to outthink, out-strategize, and outmaneuver adversaries by capitalizing on U.S. innovation and the spirit of its people.

Replicator Program Details

While details about the Replicator program are limited, Hicks explained that it seeks to master tomorrow’s technology, specifically attritable autonomous systems in all domains. Attritable refers to platforms that are inexpensive enough to be deployed on high-risk missions while remaining relevant for those missions. Replicator aims to counter China’s mass with its own mass, which will be harder to plan for and defeat. The cost, rapid development cycles, and potential for mass production are key considerations for the program’s success. The affordability of attritable platforms allows for production closer to the tactical edge, enabling faster deployment and unorthodox usage beyond traditional mission command chains.

Ethical Considerations and Human Involvement

Hicks emphasized that Replicator will be developed and fielded in accordance with the Department of Defense’s responsible and ethical approach to artificial intelligence (AI) and autonomous systems. This suggests that humans may still be involved in decision-making processes, particularly regarding the use of lethal force. In contrast, she hinted that China may have a different approach, highlighting the U.S.’s advantage as empowering warfighters instead of overpowering or undercutting their abilities. The United States seeks to leverage emerging technologies to defend against modern military aggression, as exemplified by the war in Ukraine, where commercial and non-traditional tech played a decisive role.

Multi-Domain Development and Potential Applications

Hicks clarified that the development of attritable and autonomous systems is not limited to air warfare but spans all military services, defense innovation units, strategic capabilities offices, and combatant commands. Replicator’s potential extends to self-piloted ships, uncrewed aircraft, and more. Apart from cost reduction, these systems enable more innovative and successful battlefield strategies at lower echelons. Additionally, Replicator aims to develop resilient distributed systems that can operate effectively even in conditions of limited or denied bandwidth.

Speed, Size, and Industry Collaboration

The most striking aspect of Replicator is its envisioned speed and scale. Hicks expressed the goal of fielding attritable and autonomous systems in multiples of thousands across multiple domains within the next 18 to 24 months. Achieving this ambitious target will require an unconventional approach to harnessing industry, including non-traditional companies, for the benefit of the Pentagon. While the concept of digital engineering has been considered for rapid development in the past, the Pentagon may need to explore alternative routes to expedite the process.

The Future of Warfare and Collaboration with Expensive Systems

The introduction of attritable and autonomous systems through Replicator does not aim to supersede current systems but rather represents a long-term shift in the U.S. military’s approach to preparation and combat. Hicks envisions a future where both large, expensive systems and small, numerous autonomous platforms coexist, collaborating to enhance effectiveness. This concept aligns with programs such as the Next Generation Air Dominance (NGAD) efforts of the Air Force and Navy, where Collaborative Combat Aircraft (CCA) drones accompany high-end manned NGAD aircraft into combat.


The Replicator program unveiled by the Pentagon seeks to address China’s military advancements through the deployment of attritable autonomous platforms. By capitalizing on U.S. innovation and AI algorithms, the United States aims to counter China’s mass through mass of its own, leveraging small, smart, cheap, and numerous systems. Replicator signifies a shift in the U.S. military’s strategic approach and promotes collaboration between expensive and attritable systems. The program’s success will depend on industry collaboration, responsible AI development, and the ability to rapidly field these systems across multiple domains within a tight timeframe.